India’s Sustainable Development Goal no 6 #1
Ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
The Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation of the World Health Organisation and United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund as of 2012 states that in India 96.7 per cent in urban and 90.7 percent of rural population have access to improved water source which can be piped water into drilling, plot or yard; public tap/standpipe; tube well/ bore well; protected dug well; protected spring and rain water collection. India is poised to achieve universal improved water coverage by 2030. However, providing universal rural drinking water coverage far from achieves the target of ‘’Universal and Equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all”. The current mechanism is plagued by a host of problems, such as falling water tables, dilapidated facilities due to lack of proper institutional arrangements to carry out operations and maintenance, bacterial contamination of water, chemical contamination particularly fluorides and arsenic, slip-back of habitations that were fully covered by the government water supply schemes into the partially covered category due to deteriorating water quality and other problems and social exclusion of backward communities due to discrimination. Moreover, even where water of good quality is available, per capita norms for water provisions are not met, only 35 per cent of the rural population had access to 40 litres or water per capita per day or more in the 12th plan period and significant investments are needed to provide the new government norm of 70 litres per capita per day in the above plan period. The 12th plan has set 55 litres of water per capita per day as an interim norm for 2012-17 with 70 litres per capita per day being the longer term goals.
The Ministry of Rural Development under the Strategic Plan of the Department of Drinking Water And Sanitation has outlined five strategic areas with the objectives to address the challenges in the rural drinking water sector and achieve its goals. They are :
1. Enable participatory planning and implementation of schemes and source sustainability.
2. Water quality management
3. Sustainable service delivery, operation and maintenance
4. Strengthening of decentralised governance
5. Building of professional capacity.
To achieve this goal by 2030, the government of India under the Strategic Plan of the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation has estimated the financial requirements in a very strategic way that- achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all has been accessed separately and it has linkage with the goal no 3, ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages; goal no 11, make cities and human settlements inclusive, resilient and sustainable; goal no 12, ensure sustainable consumption and production pattern; goal no 14, conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development; and under goal no. 6.3, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimising release of hazardous chemicals and materials, having the proportion of untreated wastewater and increasing recycling and safe reuse by x% globally; also with 6.4 of the target i.e. substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity, and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity and also with goal no 6.5, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including thorough trans-boundary cooperation as appropriate. The financial requirement under this target has been assessed at Rs. 4 lakh crore.
The target for achieving access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defection, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations has been linked with the above cited goal nos. 3, 11, and 6.1. To achieve this goal will need Rs. 2 lakh crore and there will be a budgetary gap of Rs. 1.56 lakh crore.
The target for improving water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimising release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and increasing recycling and safe reuse by x% globally has also been linked with the goal no 2, to end hunger, achieve food security and improve nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture; goal no. 7, ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all; goal no. 8, promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all; goal no. 9, build resilient infrastructure promote inclusive and sustainable industrialisation and foster innovation; goal no. 10, reduce inequality within and among countries; goal no. 11, make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable; goal no 12, ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns along with goal no. 14, conserve and sustainably use the oceans seas and marine resources for sustainable development. This will need Rs. 6.5 lakh crore with a budgetary gap of Rs. 6.2 lakh crore.
To achieve the substantially increase water use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity, and sustainably reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity has also linkages with the above cited target goal nos. 2, 7 and 11. And also classified with implement integrated water resources management at all levels including through trans-boundary cooperation as appropriate. The goal to protect and restore water related ecosystems, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes has been considered under goal no 14 cited above. The goal to expand international cooperation and capacity building support to developing countries in water and sanitation related activities and programmes including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, waste water treatment, recycling and reuse technologies has not been assessed so far. Whereas, the above target 6.1 and 6.2 have follows with the goal for support and strengthen the participation 0f local communities for improving water and sanitation management. The total cost to achieve the Goal no 6 has a total budgetary demand of Rs. 13 lakh crore upto the year 2030, and there will be a budgetary gap of Rs. 8 lakh crore.